MORE: Pinn's works quote Daniel Payne, a leader in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, who in 1839 wrote about the extent to which slaves, aware of the hypocrisy of their Christian masters, “distrust both the goodness and justice of God.”
In a telling example, Pinn quotes a runaway slave in the 19th century, who said he was not a Christian because “white men treat us so bad in Mississippi that we can’t be Christians if that's what they are, based on how bad they treat us.”
Pinn also finds critiques of God’s efficacy in Riggin Earl’s “Brer Rabbit” stories, slave folklore that portrays God as weak or comical.
And 20th century blues and rap music that sought worldly solutions to rejecting traditional U.S. religion's grasp.
This latter example leading to the rumors that many successful blues and millionaire rap artists have "sold their souls" simply by finding a new and pure path to worldly success unhindered by traditional religion. This "they must be Illuminati a.k.a. devil worshipers" rumor, goes all the way back to the early blues artists like Robert Johnson, etc.
Wikipedia, James Clark Digital Media, ISR